These Lab Notes document my research in progress. My research area is in the future of personal computing.
Experimenting with the item as the core primitive
Designing systems for computer literacy and evolvability
Personal Computing Network & Devices
Mutations & Item change logs
Services & Item Drives
Today & Daily summary
Cross-reference Navigation in Obsidian
Cross-references & References cloud
The Graph OS
Why is our thinking on computers so restrained?
References box & Topics
General purpose personal computing software
User-created application and system views
User-created item views
Browsing contexts & recent paths
Universal reference containers
Universal data portability
Building apps in minutes, not months
The Lab Notes
Today, we’ll start with a summary, on three main pieces. If you’ve been following along, stay with me; we’re headed somewhere. If you’re new, click through to the other, linked lab notes to see demos that illustrate any new concepts.
First, in an OS of the future, everything is an item: emails, notes, webpages, todo lists, podcast episodes, receipts… everything in our personal computing domain is an item.
In our itemized OS, we can use items together, regardless of their type or source (LN 002). So we might have a workspace into which we gather a few things related to one train of thought: for example, an email, a webpage, and a note (LN 004, LN 005).
This lets us bring items together in fairly infinite ways. We could drop the email thread about an event into the event item itself. Or if we need to log an expense tomorrow, we could put the receipt item directly into a todo item we added to tomorrow’s list.
In many cases, items are made up of other items: a todo list is made up of todos, and a podcast is made of up episodes.
We can also use these bi-directional references to create a graph that reflects our thinking in higher fidelity (LN 014). A project might be referenced from a contact item representing a client, and it might reference various assets, tasks, conversations, and so forth.
Third, items are rendered by item views. An item view renders certain types of items, and you can switch which item view you’re using at any time, or create a new one entirely (LN 006, LN 009). You might have a new, preferred way of viewing your todo list or email inbox, or you might toggle between different views when visualizing an emerging thought.
To summarize, the itemized OS’ useful functionality comes from some foundational features: items that you can co-mingle, remix, and transclude; references that are bi-directional and can be many-to-many; and item views that are modifiable, swappable, and user-creatable. Plus, there’s a few other things we haven’t recapped here, like automations (LN 021).
This supreme flexibility requires a thoughtful set of primitives to give power to the user over the system, and a thoughtful set of features built with those primitives for users to start off with.
What are those primitives? And what should today’s ready-made features be? It will take quite a bit of experimentation to find out. But here’s one take that these lab notes, and the software demoed within them, has implicitly experimented with.
In an itemized OS, even the fundamental concepts like item views and references are, themselves, items. You can do everything with these items that you can do with others. This streamlines the mental model of how the system works, and it makes the system even more evolvable. How? It means that better ideas can replace even the “lower-level” concepts of references and item views in such an itemized system of the future. Plus, since these items work like all others, you can open them in an item view: for example, an item view for an item view might let you modify that item view, as seen in LN 009. If you want to really track this out, this lets you open the item view for item views, and modify how you can modify item views!
This makes the “item” the core primitive.
Building up: The system stores items. We can define new kinds of items, such as views that render items, and references that relate items to one another. We can keep building up this way, into larger structures that we might describe today as “apps”: the interfaces we expect over the items in our domain.
Breaking down: Using our itemized system, we can see how our “app”-like software is built: our inbox is an item rendered by an item view with references to message items rendered by another item view. We can see how these views and references are themselves items, which we can open to adjust their look or behavior, to make our inbox work a little differently, or to build a new kind of inbox in a similar way – such as an inbox for the things we want to read later.
In this way, we might put using a personal computer and developing for a personal computer onto one, single trajectory. Making complex software is a harder version of making simple software. Making simple software is a harder version of using complex software. Using complex software is a harder version of using simple software. This single trajectory allows users to become computer literate by either breaking down: peeking into the inner-workings of the system they’re using; or by building up: learning the fundamentals with which we “do” personal computing (e.g., items) much as we learn the fundamentals of arithmetic (e.g., addition) to build up to the more advanced stuff (e.g., items → references; addition → multiplication).
Designing computing systems meant to improve lives and improve society means designing systems that promote computer literacy and evolvability. The previous lab note, LN 028, sums up with a discussion on this.
In the next few lab notes, I’ll share with you my project that I’m currently working on (here’s a little preview), and lots of demos that take this experiment — of the item as the core primitive — as far as we can.